Compared to something like Javascript, scoping in Python is pretty easy to follow. However, I found a situation recently which was confusing at first glance until I examined the Python byte code using the dis module (“dis - Disassembler of Python byte code into mnemonics”, from the help documentation).

The situation was as follows: the set up of a test class was redefining a class to a mock value, but preserving the original class to be restored later. What happened was that an UnboundLocalError was thrown, but only when a line below it (quite a long way below it, which was tricky to spot at first) was present. It looked something like this stripped-down example:

class RealClass(object): pass

class Dummy(object): pass

class Test(object):

    def test(self):
        d = RealClass
        RealClass = Dummy

if __name__ == "__main__":
    t = Test()

Putting that whole lot in a file and running it gives:

$ python
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "", line 15, in <module>
  File "", line 9, in test
    d = RealClass
UnboundLocalError: local variable 'RealClass' referenced before assignment

Ordinarily a “local variable ‘x’ referenced before assignment” error would be fairly trivial but what was confusing was that the behaviour changed when the line RealClass = Dummy was removed - the line after where the error was thrown. To see what was going on I used the dis function from the dis module to see what instructions were being run on the Python VM.

The first look was at the piece of code which didn’t throw an error e.g.:

def test(self):
    d = RealClass


Fire up a Python shell, import the required code (the example code above is in a file called in the local directory) and run the dis function on the test method on the Test object:

>>> from scope import *
>>> from dis import dis
>>> dis(Test.test)
  9           0 LOAD_GLOBAL              0 (RealClass)
              3 STORE_FAST               1 (d)
              6 LOAD_CONST               0 (None)
              9 RETURN_VALUE        

From this we can see that a global variable (RealClass) is being loaded and stored against the local variable d (then None is loaded and returned by the function, but that’s an aside to this).

Restoring the line “RealClass = Dummy” and re-running this process shows the following output from dis:

  9           0 LOAD_FAST                1 (RealClass)
              3 STORE_FAST               2 (d)

 10           6 LOAD_GLOBAL              0 (Dummy)
              9 STORE_FAST               1 (RealClass)
             12 LOAD_CONST               0 (None)
             15 RETURN_VALUE

So this shows that, rather than being loaded from the global scope (LOAD_GLOBAL), RealClass is being loaded locally (LOAD_FAST) and of course it can’t be found. The line below it loads the Dummy variable from the global scope and stores it against a local variable, RealClass; it’s this which has affected the instruction above it.

Assigning to a variable anywhere within a particular scope means that the instruction to the Python VM anywhere else in the same scope is to load it from there. This can be confusing when the use of the variable and the assignment are quite far away from one another.