I find myself in awe of anyone who can competently use gdb. Occasionally I find myself dipping into it and pulling out some very basic information but that’s about my limit. When I saw that Python had a similarly named pdb module I was instantly intrigued because I write a lot more Python than I do C.
Circular module imports in Python are a pretty trivial bug and if you run into them it will strongly suggest that the code should be in the same module. Nonetheless, I did recently run into one and it took me a bit longer than it should have to realise what was going on… As part of the investigation, I ran pdb on the code which was very enlightening and so I decided to write up what I did and what I found.
So you’ve got module
a containing class
A and module
b that has class
B and for some reason module
a uses class
B and module
b uses class
A - all very convoluted.
# Module a.py import os import sys # Another couple of imports to make things more interesting. from b import B class A: pass # Module b.py import json # Again, this just gives us more to look at. from a import A class B: pass
Now running either of these files in the Python interpreter will raise an
ImportError. The error will occur in the module being run when it tries to import the second.
python -m pdb a.py
Running the command above puts us into the pdb shell at the top of the
> /tmp/py/a.py(1)<module>() -> import os (Pdb)
In this shell the command
step) steps over the lines of code being executed (hitting ‘Enter’ repeats the last command).
(Pdb) s > /tmp/py/a.py(2)<module>() -> import sys (Pdb) > /tmp/py/a.py(3)<module>() -> from b import B (Pdb) --Call-- > /tmp/py/b.py(1)<module>() -> import json (Pdb) > /tmp/py/b.py(1)<module>() -> import json
sys module is imported then the class
B from module
b (not at all contrived). At this point the debugger jumps over to the top of
b.py where the
json module is imported. Repeatedly calling
step here will step through each line in the
(Pdb) --Call-- > /usr/lib64/python2.6/json/__init__.py(98)<module>() -> """ (Pdb) > /usr/lib64/python2.6/json/__init__.py(98)<module>() -> """ (Pdb) > /usr/lib64/python2.6/json/__init__.py(100)<module>() -> __version__ = '1.9'
Stepping through every line in that module could be very tedious so we can use the
up command to go back up to the previous stack frame and calling
next) to go onto the next frame before we continue to step:
(Pdb) up > /tmp/py/b.py(1)<module>() -> import json (Pdb) n > /tmp/py/b.py(2)<module>() -> from a import A (Pdb) s
Of course after importing
json we have asked to import from the
a module so we go back to the top of there.
--Call-- > /tmp/py/a.py(1)<module>() -> import os (Pdb) > /tmp/py/a.py(1)<module>() -> import os (Pdb) > /tmp/py/a.py(2)<module>() -> import sys (Pdb) > /tmp/py/a.py(3)<module>() -> from b import B
The first time through this code we were stepping through each line but we didn’t go into the
sys modules, presumably because something else had already imported and evaluated them.
This time the same is true of
b. When we get to that point we have already started to import that module so we don’t go evaluate it, but equally the class
B wasn’t found (because we jumped back into
a) so the interpreter throws an
ImportError when we step onto the next line.
(Pdb) ImportError: 'cannot import name B'
Continuing to step through will return up the call stack, back through
b until we get the traceback.
Clearly classes which are this tightly coupled should be in the same module and the example is very contrived but I enjoyed how much pdb showed me what was going on.